A Review of the Ephedra genus: Distribution, Ecology, Ethnobotany, Phytochemistry and Pharmacological Properties

ethnopharmacological relevance: Viral respiratory tract infections are one of the most common infections globally, with the majority of the world’s population contractor at least one infection per year. many plant species used in traditional healing system of South Africa to treat this disease and to relieve symptoms. However, the therapeutic potential of these plants against viral respiratory disease is still under-explored.


The purpose of this study: The aim of this study was to document the southern African species of plants used in traditional medicine to treat viral respiratory infections. We also examined the extent to which the scientific evaluation of the southern African plant species against viral respiratory infections, with the aim of stimulating an interest in this area and focuses on the study in the future.


Materials and Methods:
We conducted an extensive review of the book ethnobotany, reviews and major scientific studies to identify the southern African plant used in traditional medicine of South Africa to treat viral respiratory diseases. This information is used to identify gaps in the current research that requires further study.


Results: Two hundred and fifty seven southern African plant species identified as a traditional therapy for viral respiratory diseases. Surprisingly, only one of those species (and twenty-one other species are not recorded for this purpose) has been evaluated for the ability to block the production of respiratory viruses. In addition, most of these studies screened against a single viral strain and none of those studies examined the mechanism of action of the preparation plant.


Conclusion
: Despite the documented record of the use of the southern African plant for treating respiratory viral disease, poorly explored field. Almost all types of plants used in traditional medicine systems to treat this disease has not been tested. More great work necessary to verify the effectiveness of traditional medicines.

 A Review of the Ephedra genus: Distribution, Ecology, Ethnobotany, Phytochemistry and Pharmacological Properties
A Review of the Ephedra genus: Distribution, Ecology, Ethnobotany, Phytochemistry and Pharmacological Properties

Plants Used in antivenom therapy in Rural Kenya: Ethnobotany and Future Perspectives

Snake envenomation is a neglected tropical disease that has left a death toll unbearable and severe socio-economic losses in Kenya. In a continued effort to identify some of the botanical species antiophidic East Africa, a study produced this information ethnobotany in plants antivenom was reported in Kenya, with a view to identifying potential species that can be worn in vitro and clinical studies for possible development into antivenoms.

Data retrieved through searches carried out in databases multidisciplinary (Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed, Science Direct, Google Scholar, and the Scientific Electronic Library Online) showed that 54 plant species belonging to 45 genera, distributed among 27 families, which are used for the management of snakebite in Kenya.

Most species belong to the Asteraceae family (11%), Malvaceae (11%), Fabaceae (9%), Annonaceae (6%), Combretaceae (6%), and Lamiaceae (6%). The main growth habit of the species is as herbs (35%), shrubs (33%), and trees (28%). Ethnomedicinal preparation used in treating snake venom is usually of the leaves (48%), roots (26%) and bark (8%) through decoctions, infusions, powders, and juices are applied topically or given orally.

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The species most frequently encountered are Combretum collinum, Euclea divinorum, Fuerstia africana, Grewia fallax, Microglossa pyrifolia, Solanecio mannii, and Solanum incanum. indigenous knowledge in medicine in Kenya antivenom therapy is humongous, and therefore research to isolate and evaluate the antivenom in the plant compound claimed prompted to allow the use of their confidence in antivenom therapy alongside commercial antivenin sera.