A Review of the Ephedra genus: Distribution, Ecology, Ethnobotany, Phytochemistry and Pharmacological Properties

ethnopharmacological relevance: Viral respiratory tract infections are one of the most common infections globally, with the majority of the world’s population contractor at least one infection per year. many plant species used in traditional healing system of South Africa to treat this disease and to relieve symptoms. However, the therapeutic potential of these plants against viral respiratory disease is still under-explored.


The purpose of this study: The aim of this study was to document the southern African species of plants used in traditional medicine to treat viral respiratory infections. We also examined the extent to which the scientific evaluation of the southern African plant species against viral respiratory infections, with the aim of stimulating an interest in this area and focuses on the study in the future.


Materials and Methods:
We conducted an extensive review of the book ethnobotany, reviews and major scientific studies to identify the southern African plant used in traditional medicine of South Africa to treat viral respiratory diseases. This information is used to identify gaps in the current research that requires further study.


Results: Two hundred and fifty seven southern African plant species identified as a traditional therapy for viral respiratory diseases. Surprisingly, only one of those species (and twenty-one other species are not recorded for this purpose) has been evaluated for the ability to block the production of respiratory viruses. In addition, most of these studies screened against a single viral strain and none of those studies examined the mechanism of action of the preparation plant.


Conclusion
: Despite the documented record of the use of the southern African plant for treating respiratory viral disease, poorly explored field. Almost all types of plants used in traditional medicine systems to treat this disease has not been tested. More great work necessary to verify the effectiveness of traditional medicines.

 A Review of the Ephedra genus: Distribution, Ecology, Ethnobotany, Phytochemistry and Pharmacological Properties
A Review of the Ephedra genus: Distribution, Ecology, Ethnobotany, Phytochemistry and Pharmacological Properties

Plants Used in antivenom therapy in Rural Kenya: Ethnobotany and Future Perspectives

Snake envenomation is a neglected tropical disease that has left a death toll unbearable and severe socio-economic losses in Kenya. In a continued effort to identify some of the botanical species antiophidic East Africa, a study produced this information ethnobotany in plants antivenom was reported in Kenya, with a view to identifying potential species that can be worn in vitro and clinical studies for possible development into antivenoms.

Data retrieved through searches carried out in databases multidisciplinary (Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed, Science Direct, Google Scholar, and the Scientific Electronic Library Online) showed that 54 plant species belonging to 45 genera, distributed among 27 families, which are used for the management of snakebite in Kenya.

Most species belong to the Asteraceae family (11%), Malvaceae (11%), Fabaceae (9%), Annonaceae (6%), Combretaceae (6%), and Lamiaceae (6%). The main growth habit of the species is as herbs (35%), shrubs (33%), and trees (28%). Ethnomedicinal preparation used in treating snake venom is usually of the leaves (48%), roots (26%) and bark (8%) through decoctions, infusions, powders, and juices are applied topically or given orally.

Human herpesvirus 7 RT PCR kit

RTq-H483-100D 100T
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Human herpesvirus 7 RT PCR kit

RTq-H483-150D 150T
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Human herpesvirus 7 RT PCR kit

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hsa-mir-100-3p RT-PCR Detection Kit

20-abx096084
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  • EUR 732.00
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4211 1/EA
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Human herpesvirus 7 PCR kit

PCR-H483-48D 50T
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Human herpesvirus 7 PCR kit

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hsa-mir-100 RT-PCR Primer Set

abx096837-1nmol 1 nmol
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hsa-mir-7 RT-PCR Detection Kit

20-abx096025
  • EUR 537.00
  • EUR 732.00
  • EUR 398.00
  • 100 rxns
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PCR Mycoplasma Detection Kit

M034-Kit Kit
EUR 266

amfiRivert 1-Step RT-PCR Kit

R5003-100 100 rxns
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hsa-mir-100-3p RT-PCR Primer Set

abx096838-1nmol 1 nmol
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0.2ML CLEAR STRIP CAPS FOR REAL TIME PCR

PCR-2CP-RT-C 125/pk
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Description: PCR Plates & Tubes; PCR Strip Tubes and Strip Caps - Axygen

hsa-mir-100 RT-PCR Detection and U6 Calibration Kit

20-abx096460
  • EUR 690.00
  • EUR 954.00
  • EUR 495.00
  • 100 rxns
  • 200 rxns
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Sealing film, PCR 96 Well Plate Sealing Membrane, 100/pk

P1001-PCR 100/pack
EUR 95.9
Description: Sealing film PCR 96 Well Plate Sealing Membrane

hsa-mir-7 RT-PCR Primer Set

abx096779-1nmol 1 nmol
EUR 286

Ruminococcus RT PCR kit

RTq-V619-100D 100T
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Description: A Real-Time PCR kit for detection of Ruminococcus .

Ruminococcus RT PCR kit

RTq-V619-150D 150T
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Description: A Real-Time PCR kit for detection of Ruminococcus .

Ruminococcus RT PCR kit

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Description: A Real-Time PCR kit for detection of Ruminococcus .

Bifidobacterium RT PCR kit

RTq-V621-100D 100T
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Description: A Real-Time PCR kit for detection of Bifidobacterium .

Bifidobacterium RT PCR kit

RTq-V621-150D 150T
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Description: A Real-Time PCR kit for detection of Bifidobacterium .

Bifidobacterium RT PCR kit

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Description: A Real-Time PCR kit for detection of Bifidobacterium .

Pospiviroid RT PCR kit

RTq-A546-100R 100T
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Pospiviroid RT PCR kit

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Pospiviroid RT PCR kit

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Lactobacillus RT PCR kit

RTq-A566-100D 100T
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Lactobacillus RT PCR kit

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Leuconostoc RT PCR kit

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Leuconostoc RT PCR kit

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Pediococcus RT PCR kit

RTq-A571-100D 100T
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Pediococcus RT PCR kit

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Enterovirus RT PCR kit

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Enterovirus RT PCR kit

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Enterovirus RT PCR kit

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Mengovirus RT PCR kit

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Mengovirus RT PCR kit

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Mengovirus RT PCR kit

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Astrovirus RT PCR kit

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Astrovirus RT PCR kit

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Astrovirus RT PCR kit

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Calicivirus RT PCR kit

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Calicivirus RT PCR kit

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Calicivirus RT PCR kit

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Adenovirus RT PCR kit

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Ruminococcus RT PCR kit

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hsa-mir-100-3p RT-PCR Detection and U6 Calibration Kit

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hsa-mir-7 RT-PCR Detection and U6 Calibration Kit

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MULTIPLEX KIT PCR MASTITIS PCR kit

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Faecalibacterium prausnitzii RT PCR kit

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Veillonella spp. RT PCR kit

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The species most frequently encountered are Combretum collinum, Euclea divinorum, Fuerstia africana, Grewia fallax, Microglossa pyrifolia, Solanecio mannii, and Solanum incanum. indigenous knowledge in medicine in Kenya antivenom therapy is humongous, and therefore research to isolate and evaluate the antivenom in the plant compound claimed prompted to allow the use of their confidence in antivenom therapy alongside commercial antivenin sera.