The traditional use of southern African medicinal plants for the treatment of bacterial respiratory diseases: A review of the ethnobotany and scientific evaluations

ethnopharmacological relevance: Several plant species traditionally used in South Africa to treat bacterial respiratory disease. This review summarizes and highlights the use of this plant species that are not verified for this activity.


The purpose of the study: This manuscript reviews the use of traditional southern African plant species to treat bacterial respiratory disease with the aim of highlighting the gaps in the literature and the focus of future studies.


Materials and Methods: An extensive review of the book ethnobotany, reviews and the primary scientific studies conducted to identify the southern African plant used in traditional medicine of South Africa to treat bacterial respiratory disease. We are also looking for a southern African plant inhibitory activity against bacterial respiratory pathogens have conmfirmed, highlight gaps in the literature and future focus.


Results: One hundred and eighty seven southern African plant species are recorded as a traditional treatment for bacterial respiratory infections. scientific evaluation of 178 plant species recorded, although only 42 of them have been selected for screening on the basis of their ethnobotanical use. Therefore, the potential of the 146 species used teraditionally to treat bacterial respiratory disease has not been verified.


Conclusion: The properties of inhibition of the southern African medicinal plants against bacterial respiratory pathogens is relatively under-explored and the antibacterial activity of plant species that most remains to be verified.

 The traditional use of southern African medicinal plants for the treatment of bacterial respiratory diseases: A review of the ethnobotany and scientific evaluations
The traditional use of southern African medicinal plants for the treatment of bacterial respiratory diseases: A review of the ethnobotany and scientific evaluations

A Review of the genus Ephedra: Distribution, Ecology, Ethnobotany, Phytochemistry and Pharmacology Property

Ephedra is one of the largest genera of the family Ephedraceae, which are distributed in arid and semi-arid regions of the world. In traditional medicine from several countries some species of the genus are commonly used to treat asthma, cold, flu, chills, fever, headache, nasal congestion, and cough. Chemical constituents of species Ephedra has attracted research for decades because of its content of ephedrine-alkaloid and its pharmacological properties.

other chemical constituents such as phenolic and amino acid derivatives has also resulted in interesting and has given advocates the use of evidence-based ethnomedical from Ephedra species. In recent years, research has expanded to explore the diversity of endophytic fungi associated with Ephedra species, as well as, the chemical constituents are derived from these mushrooms and their pharmacological bioprospecting.

Two additional aspects that describe the chemical diversity of the genus Ephedra is chemotaxonomic approach and the use of ephedrine-alkaloid as a building block in organic synthesis. American Ephedra species, especially those in Mexico, are considered to lack the type of ephedrine alkaloids. In this sense, phytochemical studies Mexican species Ephedra is a promising area of ​​research to strengthen them ephedrine alkaloid-type content and, in turn, discover new chemical compounds with potential biological activity.

Deoxy+ OneStep RT-PCR Kit, 100 preps

FYT503-100P 1 vial Ask for price

igScript One Step RT-PCR Kit - 100 Reactions

4211 1/EA
EUR 237.00

hsa-mir-100-3p RT-PCR Detection Kit

20-abx096084
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  • EUR 732.00
  • EUR 398.00
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PCR Mycoplasma Detection Kit

M034-Kit Kit
EUR 266.00

hsa-mir-100 RT-PCR Primer Set

abx096837-1nmol 1 nmol
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amfiRivert 1-Step RT-PCR Kit

R5003-100 100 rxns
EUR 334.00

0.2ML CLEAR STRIP CAPS FOR REAL TIME PCR

PCR-2CP-RT-C 125/pk
EUR 223.00
Description: PCR Plates & Tubes; PCR Strip Tubes and Strip Caps - Axygen

hsa-mir-100-3p RT-PCR Primer Set

abx096838-1nmol 1 nmol
EUR 286.00
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hsa-mir-100 RT-PCR Detection and U6 Calibration Kit

20-abx096460
  • EUR 690.00
  • EUR 954.00
  • EUR 495.00
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hsa-mir-100-3p RT-PCR Detection and U6 Calibration Kit

20-abx096461
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  • EUR 954.00
  • EUR 495.00
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ranavirus RT PCR kit

RTq-V337-100D 100T
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Description: A Real-Time PCR kit for detection of ranavirus .

ranavirus RT PCR kit

RTq-V337-150D 150T
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Description: A Real-Time PCR kit for detection of ranavirus .

ranavirus RT PCR kit

RTq-V337-50D 50T
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Description: A Real-Time PCR kit for detection of ranavirus .

Ruminococcus RT PCR kit

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Description: A Real-Time PCR kit for detection of Ruminococcus .

Ruminococcus RT PCR kit

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Description: A Real-Time PCR kit for detection of Ruminococcus .

Ruminococcus RT PCR kit

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Bifidobacterium RT PCR kit

RTq-V621-150D 150T
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Bifidobacterium RT PCR kit

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Hantavirus RT PCR kit

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Hantavirus RT PCR kit

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Description: A Real-Time PCR kit for detection of Hantavirus .

Hantavirus RT PCR kit

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Lactobacillus RT PCR kit

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Lactobacillus RT PCR kit

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Lactococcus RT PCR kit

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Description: A Real-Time PCR kit for detection of Lactococcus .

Lactococcus RT PCR kit

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Description: A Real-Time PCR kit for detection of Lactococcus .

Lactococcus RT PCR kit

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RTq-A569-150D 150T
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Leuconostoc RT PCR kit

RTq-A569-50D 50T
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Pediococcus RT PCR kit

RTq-A571-100D 100T
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Description: A Real-Time PCR kit for detection of Pediococcus .

Pediococcus RT PCR kit

RTq-A571-150D 150T
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Description: A Real-Time PCR kit for detection of Pediococcus .

Pediococcus RT PCR kit

RTq-A571-50D 50T
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Description: A Real-Time PCR kit for detection of Pediococcus .

Halobacillus RT PCR kit

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Halobacillus RT PCR kit

RTq-A635-150D 150T
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Description: A Real-Time PCR kit for detection of Halobacillus .

Halobacillus RT PCR kit

RTq-A635-50D 50T
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Mengovirus RT PCR kit

RTq-H453-150R 150T
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Description: A Real-Time PCR kit for detection of Mengovirus .

Astrovirus RT PCR kit

RTq-H491-100R 100T
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Astrovirus RT PCR kit

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Description: A Real-Time PCR kit for detection of Astrovirus .

Astrovirus RT PCR kit

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Description: A Real-Time PCR kit for detection of Astrovirus .

Calicivirus RT PCR kit

RTq-H493-100R 100T
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Description: A Real-Time PCR kit for detection of Calicivirus .

Calicivirus RT PCR kit

RTq-H493-150R 150T
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Description: A Real-Time PCR kit for detection of Calicivirus .

Calicivirus RT PCR kit

RTq-H493-50R 50T
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Description: A Real-Time PCR kit for detection of Calicivirus .

Adenovirus RT PCR kit

RTq-H501-100D 100T
EUR 628.50
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Description: A Real-Time PCR kit for detection of Adenovirus .

Adenovirus RT PCR kit

RTq-H501-150D 150T
EUR 701.00
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Description: A Real-Time PCR kit for detection of Adenovirus .

Adenovirus RT PCR kit

RTq-H501-50D 50T
EUR 532.80
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Description: A Real-Time PCR kit for detection of Adenovirus .

Polyomavirus RT PCR kit

RTq-H515-100D 100T
EUR 628.50
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Description: A Real-Time PCR kit for detection of Polyomavirus .

Polyomavirus RT PCR kit

RTq-H515-150D 150T
EUR 701.00
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Description: A Real-Time PCR kit for detection of Polyomavirus .

Polyomavirus RT PCR kit

RTq-H515-50D 50T
EUR 532.80
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Description: A Real-Time PCR kit for detection of Polyomavirus .

Sapovirus RT PCR kit

RTq-H630-100R 100T
EUR 776.40
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Description: A Real-Time PCR kit for detection of Sapovirus .

Sapovirus RT PCR kit

RTq-H630-150R 150T
EUR 877.90
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Description: A Real-Time PCR kit for detection of Sapovirus .

Sapovirus RT PCR kit

RTq-H630-50R 50T
EUR 631.40
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Description: A Real-Time PCR kit for detection of Sapovirus .

Parechovirus RT PCR kit

RTq-H642-100R 100T
EUR 776.40
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Description: A Real-Time PCR kit for detection of Parechovirus .

Parechovirus RT PCR kit

RTq-H642-150R 150T
EUR 877.90
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Description: A Real-Time PCR kit for detection of Parechovirus .

Parechovirus RT PCR kit

RTq-H642-50R 50T
EUR 532.80
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Description: A Real-Time PCR kit for detection of Parechovirus .

Metapneumovirus RT PCR kit

RTq-H643-100R 100T
EUR 776.40
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Description: A Real-Time PCR kit for detection of Metapneumovirus .

Metapneumovirus RT PCR kit

RTq-H643-150R 150T
EUR 877.90
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Description: A Real-Time PCR kit for detection of Metapneumovirus .

Metapneumovirus RT PCR kit

RTq-H643-50R 50T
EUR 631.40
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Description: A Real-Time PCR kit for detection of Metapneumovirus .

Entamoeba RT PCR kit

RTq-H683-100D 100T
EUR 628.50
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Description: A Real-Time PCR kit for detection of Entamoeba .

Entamoeba RT PCR kit

RTq-H683-150D 150T
EUR 701.00
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Description: A Real-Time PCR kit for detection of Entamoeba .

Entamoeba RT PCR kit

RTq-H683-50D 50T
EUR 532.80
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Description: A Real-Time PCR kit for detection of Entamoeba .

Acanthamoeba RT PCR kit

RTq-H684-100D 100T
EUR 628.50
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Description: A Real-Time PCR kit for detection of Acanthamoeba .

Acanthamoeba RT PCR kit

RTq-H684-150D 150T
EUR 701.00
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Description: A Real-Time PCR kit for detection of Acanthamoeba .

Acanthamoeba RT PCR kit

RTq-H684-50D 50T
EUR 532.80
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Description: A Real-Time PCR kit for detection of Acanthamoeba .

Echovirus RT PCR kit

RTq-H722-100D 100T
EUR 628.50
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Description: A Real-Time PCR kit for detection of Echovirus .

Echovirus RT PCR kit

RTq-H722-150D 150T
EUR 701.00
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Description: A Real-Time PCR kit for detection of Echovirus .

Echovirus RT PCR kit

RTq-H722-50R 50T
EUR 631.40
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Description: A Real-Time PCR kit for detection of Echovirus .

PCR Purification Kit (100 preps)

9K-006-0003 100preps
EUR 224.00
  • Product category: Molecular Biology Kits/DNA - Extraction/PCR Products

MULTIPLEX KIT PCR MASTITIS PCR kit

PCR-MPX218-48D 50T
EUR 425.80
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Description: An conventional PCR kit for detection of MULTIPLEX KIT PCR MASTITIS

MULTIPLEX KIT PCR MASTITIS PCR kit

PCR-MPX218-96D 100T
EUR 521.50
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Description: An conventional PCR kit for detection of MULTIPLEX KIT PCR MASTITIS

EBV-VCA IgA ELISA Kit

E4687-100
EUR 539.00

EBV-VCA IgG ELISA Kit

E4688-100
EUR 539.00

EBV-VCA IgM ELISA Kit

E4689-100
EUR 539.00

MULTIPLEX KIT PCR Babesia & Theileria PCR kit

PCR-MPX401-48D 50T
EUR 425.80
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Description: An conventional PCR kit for detection of MULTIPLEX KIT PCR Babesia & Theileria

MULTIPLEX KIT PCR Babesia & Theileria PCR kit

PCR-MPX401-96D 100T
EUR 521.50
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Description: An conventional PCR kit for detection of MULTIPLEX KIT PCR Babesia & Theileria

One Step RT PCR Kit

9K-005-0011 100Rxn, 100prep
EUR 267.50
  • Product category: PCR Related/PCR Kits (RT-PCR)

One-Step RT-PCR Kit

G174 100 x 50 ul reactions
EUR 233.00

OneScriptTwo-Step RT-PCR Kit

G281 25 reactions
EUR 101.00

OneScriptTwo-Step RT-PCR Kit

G282 100 reactions
EUR 177.00

RT-PCR Control Template Kit

G928 100 rxns
EUR 205.00

Trypanosoma brucei RT PCR kit

RTq-V217-100D 100T
EUR 628.50
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Description: A Real-Time PCR kit for detection of Trypanosoma brucei .

Trypanosoma brucei RT PCR kit

RTq-V217-150D 150T
EUR 701.00
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Description: A Real-Time PCR kit for detection of Trypanosoma brucei .

Trypanosoma brucei RT PCR kit

RTq-V217-50D 50T
EUR 532.80
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Description: A Real-Time PCR kit for detection of Trypanosoma brucei .

Corynebacterium bovis RT PCR kit

RTq-V219-100D 100T
EUR 628.50
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Description: A Real-Time PCR kit for detection of Corynebacterium bovis .

Corynebacterium bovis RT PCR kit

RTq-V219-150D 150T
EUR 701.00
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Description: A Real-Time PCR kit for detection of Corynebacterium bovis .

Corynebacterium bovis RT PCR kit

RTq-V219-50D 50T
EUR 532.80
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Description: A Real-Time PCR kit for detection of Corynebacterium bovis .

Bovine coronavirus RT PCR kit

RTq-V220-100R 100T
EUR 776.40
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Description: A Real-Time PCR kit for detection of Bovine coronavirus .

Bovine coronavirus RT PCR kit

RTq-V220-150R 150T
EUR 877.90
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Description: A Real-Time PCR kit for detection of Bovine coronavirus .

Bovine coronavirus RT PCR kit

RTq-V220-50R 50T
EUR 631.40
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Description: A Real-Time PCR kit for detection of Bovine coronavirus .

Bluetongue disease RT PCR kit

RTq-V224-100R 100T
EUR 776.40
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Description: A Real-Time PCR kit for detection of Bluetongue disease .

Bluetongue disease RT PCR kit

RTq-V224-150R 150T
EUR 877.90
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Description: A Real-Time PCR kit for detection of Bluetongue disease .

Bluetongue disease RT PCR kit

RTq-V224-50R 50T
EUR 631.40
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Description: A Real-Time PCR kit for detection of Bluetongue disease .

Aeromonas hydrophila RT PCR kit

RTq-V240-100D 100T
EUR 628.50
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Description: A Real-Time PCR kit for detection of Aeromonas hydrophila .

Aeromonas hydrophila RT PCR kit

RTq-V240-150D 150T
EUR 701.00
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Description: A Real-Time PCR kit for detection of Aeromonas hydrophila .

Aeromonas hydrophila RT PCR kit

RTq-V240-50D 50T
EUR 532.80
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Description: A Real-Time PCR kit for detection of Aeromonas hydrophila .

Flavobacterium columnare RT PCR kit

RTq-V242-100D 100T
EUR 628.50
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Description: A Real-Time PCR kit for detection of Flavobacterium columnare .

Flavobacterium columnare RT PCR kit

RTq-V242-150D 150T
EUR 701.00
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Description: A Real-Time PCR kit for detection of Flavobacterium columnare .

Flavobacterium columnare RT PCR kit

RTq-V242-50D 50T
EUR 532.80
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Description: A Real-Time PCR kit for detection of Flavobacterium columnare .

Kudoa sp. RT PCR kit

RTq-V243-100D 100T
EUR 628.50
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Description: A Real-Time PCR kit for detection of Kudoa sp. .

Kudoa sp. RT PCR kit

RTq-V243-150D 150T
EUR 701.00
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Description: A Real-Time PCR kit for detection of Kudoa sp. .

Kudoa sp. RT PCR kit

RTq-V243-50D 50T
EUR 532.80
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Description: A Real-Time PCR kit for detection of Kudoa sp. .

Nucleospora salmonis RT PCR kit

RTq-V244-100D 100T
EUR 628.50
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Description: A Real-Time PCR kit for detection of Nucleospora salmonis .

Nucleospora salmonis RT PCR kit

RTq-V244-150D 150T
EUR 701.00
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Description: A Real-Time PCR kit for detection of Nucleospora salmonis .

Nucleospora salmonis RT PCR kit

RTq-V244-50D 50T
EUR 532.80
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Description: A Real-Time PCR kit for detection of Nucleospora salmonis .

Piscirickettsia salmonis RT PCR kit

RTq-V245-100D 100T
EUR 628.50
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Description: A Real-Time PCR kit for detection of Piscirickettsia salmonis .

Piscirickettsia salmonis RT PCR kit

RTq-V245-150D 150T
EUR 701.00
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Description: A Real-Time PCR kit for detection of Piscirickettsia salmonis .

Piscirickettsia salmonis RT PCR kit

RTq-V245-50D 50T
EUR 532.80
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Description: A Real-Time PCR kit for detection of Piscirickettsia salmonis .

Renibacterium salmoninarum RT PCR kit

RTq-V246-100D 100T
EUR 628.50
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Description: A Real-Time PCR kit for detection of Renibacterium salmoninarum .

Renibacterium salmoninarum RT PCR kit

RTq-V246-150D 150T
EUR 701.00
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Description: A Real-Time PCR kit for detection of Renibacterium salmoninarum .

Renibacterium salmoninarum RT PCR kit

RTq-V246-50D 50T
EUR 532.80
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Description: A Real-Time PCR kit for detection of Renibacterium salmoninarum .

Streptococcus phocae RT PCR kit

RTq-V247-100D 100T
EUR 628.50
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Description: A Real-Time PCR kit for detection of Streptococcus phocae .

Therefore, this review is a compilation of the key to all the relevant information to the genus Ephedra, especially the American species, species distribution, ecological interactions, they, ethnobotany that, phytochemical and pharmacological activity and toxicity, in order to promote a clear direction for future research.