The traditional use of southern African medicinal plants for the treatment of bacterial respiratory diseases: A review of the ethnobotany and scientific evaluations

ethnopharmacological relevance: Several plant species traditionally used in South Africa to treat bacterial respiratory disease. This review summarizes and highlights the use of this plant species that are not verified for this activity.


The purpose of the study: This manuscript reviews the use of traditional southern African plant species to treat bacterial respiratory disease with the aim of highlighting the gaps in the literature and the focus of future studies.


Materials and Methods: An extensive review of the book ethnobotany, reviews and the primary scientific studies conducted to identify the southern African plant used in traditional medicine of South Africa to treat bacterial respiratory disease. We are also looking for a southern African plant inhibitory activity against bacterial respiratory pathogens have conmfirmed, highlight gaps in the literature and future focus.


Results: One hundred and eighty seven southern African plant species are recorded as a traditional treatment for bacterial respiratory infections. scientific evaluation of 178 plant species recorded, although only 42 of them have been selected for screening on the basis of their ethnobotanical use. Therefore, the potential of the 146 species used teraditionally to treat bacterial respiratory disease has not been verified.


Conclusion: The properties of inhibition of the southern African medicinal plants against bacterial respiratory pathogens is relatively under-explored and the antibacterial activity of plant species that most remains to be verified.

 The traditional use of southern African medicinal plants for the treatment of bacterial respiratory diseases: A review of the ethnobotany and scientific evaluations
The traditional use of southern African medicinal plants for the treatment of bacterial respiratory diseases: A review of the ethnobotany and scientific evaluations

A Review of the genus Ephedra: Distribution, Ecology, Ethnobotany, Phytochemistry and Pharmacology Property

Ephedra is one of the largest genera of the family Ephedraceae, which are distributed in arid and semi-arid regions of the world. In traditional medicine from several countries some species of the genus are commonly used to treat asthma, cold, flu, chills, fever, headache, nasal congestion, and cough. Chemical constituents of species Ephedra has attracted research for decades because of its content of ephedrine-alkaloid and its pharmacological properties.

other chemical constituents such as phenolic and amino acid derivatives has also resulted in interesting and has given advocates the use of evidence-based ethnomedical from Ephedra species. In recent years, research has expanded to explore the diversity of endophytic fungi associated with Ephedra species, as well as, the chemical constituents are derived from these mushrooms and their pharmacological bioprospecting.

Two additional aspects that describe the chemical diversity of the genus Ephedra is chemotaxonomic approach and the use of ephedrine-alkaloid as a building block in organic synthesis. American Ephedra species, especially those in Mexico, are considered to lack the type of ephedrine alkaloids. In this sense, phytochemical studies Mexican species Ephedra is a promising area of ​​research to strengthen them ephedrine alkaloid-type content and, in turn, discover new chemical compounds with potential biological activity.

igScript One Step RT-PCR Kit - 100 Reactions

4211 1/EA
EUR 284.4

hsa-mir-100-3p RT-PCR Detection Kit

20-abx096084
  • EUR 644.40
  • EUR 878.40
  • EUR 477.60
  • 100 rxns
  • 200 rxns
  • 50 rxns

PCR Mycoplasma Detection Kit

M034-Kit Kit
EUR 319.2

hsa-mir-100 RT-PCR Primer Set

abx096837-1nmol 1 nmol
EUR 343.2

amfiRivert 1-Step RT-PCR Kit

R5003-100 100 rxns
EUR 400.8

0.2ML CLEAR STRIP CAPS FOR REAL TIME PCR

PCR-2CP-RT-C 125/pk
EUR 267.6
Description: PCR Plates & Tubes; PCR Strip Tubes and Strip Caps - Axygen

hsa-mir-100-3p RT-PCR Primer Set

abx096838-1nmol 1 nmol
EUR 343.2

Sealing film, PCR 96 Well Plate Sealing Membrane, 100/pk

P1001-PCR 100/pack
EUR 115.08
Description: Sealing film PCR 96 Well Plate Sealing Membrane

hsa-mir-100 RT-PCR Detection and U6 Calibration Kit

20-abx096460
  • EUR 828.00
  • EUR 1144.80
  • EUR 594.00
  • 100 rxns
  • 200 rxns
  • 50 rxns

Pospiviroid RT PCR kit

RTq-A546-100R 100T
EUR 1573.2

Pospiviroid RT PCR kit

RTq-A546-150R 150T
EUR 2144.4

Pospiviroid RT PCR kit

RTq-A546-50R 50T
EUR 1155.6

Lactobacillus RT PCR kit

RTq-A566-100D 100T
EUR 860.4

Lactobacillus RT PCR kit

RTq-A566-150D 150T
EUR 969.6

Lactobacillus RT PCR kit

RTq-A566-50D 50T
EUR 717.6

Lactococcus RT PCR kit

RTq-A567-100D 100T
EUR 860.4

Lactococcus RT PCR kit

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Lactococcus RT PCR kit

RTq-A567-50D 50T
EUR 717.6

Leuconostoc RT PCR kit

RTq-A569-100D 100T
EUR 860.4

Leuconostoc RT PCR kit

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EUR 969.6

Leuconostoc RT PCR kit

RTq-A569-50D 50T
EUR 717.6

Pediococcus RT PCR kit

RTq-A571-100D 100T
EUR 860.4

Pediococcus RT PCR kit

RTq-A571-150D 150T
EUR 969.6

Pediococcus RT PCR kit

RTq-A571-50D 50T
EUR 717.6

Halobacillus RT PCR kit

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EUR 860.4

Halobacillus RT PCR kit

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Halobacillus RT PCR kit

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Enterovirus RT PCR kit

RTq-H433-100R 100T
EUR 1573.2

Enterovirus RT PCR kit

RTq-H433-150R 150T
EUR 2144.4

Enterovirus RT PCR kit

RTq-H433-50R 50T
EUR 1155.6

Mengovirus RT PCR kit

RTq-H453-100R 100T
EUR 1573.2

Mengovirus RT PCR kit

RTq-H453-150R 150T
EUR 2144.4

Mengovirus RT PCR kit

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EUR 1155.6

Astrovirus RT PCR kit

RTq-H491-100R 100T
EUR 1573.2

Astrovirus RT PCR kit

RTq-H491-150R 150T
EUR 2144.4

Astrovirus RT PCR kit

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EUR 1155.6

Calicivirus RT PCR kit

RTq-H493-100R 100T
EUR 1573.2

Calicivirus RT PCR kit

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EUR 2144.4

Calicivirus RT PCR kit

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EUR 1155.6

Adenovirus RT PCR kit

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EUR 860.4

Adenovirus RT PCR kit

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EUR 969.6

Adenovirus RT PCR kit

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EUR 717.6

Polyomavirus RT PCR kit

RTq-H515-100D 100T
EUR 860.4

Polyomavirus RT PCR kit

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EUR 969.6

Polyomavirus RT PCR kit

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Ruminococcus RT PCR kit

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EUR 860.4

Ruminococcus RT PCR kit

RTq-H619-150D 150T
EUR 969.6

Ruminococcus RT PCR kit

RTq-H619-50D 50T
EUR 717.6

Bifidobacterium RT PCR kit

RTq-H621-100D 100T
EUR 860.4

Bifidobacterium RT PCR kit

RTq-H621-150D 150T
EUR 969.6

Bifidobacterium RT PCR kit

RTq-H621-50D 50T
EUR 717.6

Sapovirus RT PCR kit

RTq-H630-100R 100T
EUR 1573.2

Sapovirus RT PCR kit

RTq-H630-150R 150T
EUR 2144.4

Sapovirus RT PCR kit

RTq-H630-50R 50T
EUR 1155.6

Parechovirus RT PCR kit

RTq-H642-100R 100T
EUR 1573.2

Parechovirus RT PCR kit

RTq-H642-150R 150T
EUR 2144.4

Parechovirus RT PCR kit

RTq-H642-50R 50T
EUR 1155.6

Metapneumovirus RT PCR kit

RTq-H643-100R 100T
EUR 1573.2

Metapneumovirus RT PCR kit

RTq-H643-150R 150T
EUR 2144.4

Metapneumovirus RT PCR kit

RTq-H643-50R 50T
EUR 1155.6

Entamoeba RT PCR kit

RTq-H683-100D 100T
EUR 860.4

Entamoeba RT PCR kit

RTq-H683-150D 150T
EUR 969.6

Entamoeba RT PCR kit

RTq-H683-50D 50T
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Acanthamoeba RT PCR kit

RTq-H684-100D 100T
EUR 860.4

Acanthamoeba RT PCR kit

RTq-H684-150D 150T
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Acanthamoeba RT PCR kit

RTq-H684-50D 50T
EUR 717.6

Echovirus RT PCR kit

RTq-H722-100D 100T
EUR 860.4

Echovirus RT PCR kit

RTq-H722-150D 150T
EUR 969.6

Echovirus RT PCR kit

RTq-H722-50R 50T
EUR 1155.6

ranavirus RT PCR kit

RTq-V337-100D 100T
EUR 860.4

ranavirus RT PCR kit

RTq-V337-150D 150T
EUR 969.6

ranavirus RT PCR kit

RTq-V337-50D 50T
EUR 717.6

Ruminococcus RT PCR kit

RTq-V619-100D 100T
EUR 754.2
Description: A Real-Time PCR kit for detection of Ruminococcus .

Ruminococcus RT PCR kit

RTq-V619-150D 150T
EUR 841.2
Description: A Real-Time PCR kit for detection of Ruminococcus .

Ruminococcus RT PCR kit

RTq-V619-50D 50T
EUR 639.36
Description: A Real-Time PCR kit for detection of Ruminococcus .

Bifidobacterium RT PCR kit

RTq-V621-100D 100T
EUR 754.2
Description: A Real-Time PCR kit for detection of Bifidobacterium .

Bifidobacterium RT PCR kit

RTq-V621-150D 150T
EUR 841.2
Description: A Real-Time PCR kit for detection of Bifidobacterium .

Bifidobacterium RT PCR kit

RTq-V621-50D 50T
EUR 639.36
Description: A Real-Time PCR kit for detection of Bifidobacterium .

hsa-mir-100-3p RT-PCR Detection and U6 Calibration Kit

20-abx096461
  • EUR 828.00
  • EUR 1144.80
  • EUR 594.00
  • 100 rxns
  • 200 rxns
  • 50 rxns

MULTIPLEX KIT PCR MASTITIS PCR kit

PCR-MPX218-48D 50T
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MULTIPLEX KIT PCR MASTITIS PCR kit

PCR-MPX218-96D 100T
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PCR Purification Kit (100 preps)

9K-006-0003 100preps
EUR 268.8

MULTIPLEX KIT PCR Babesia & Theileria PCR kit

PCR-MPX401-48D 50T
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MULTIPLEX KIT PCR Babesia & Theileria PCR kit

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Genorise® Gel DNA Purification Mini Kit-PCR Clean Kit- 100

GR101080-100 100
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EBV-VCA IgA ELISA Kit

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EBV-VCA IgG ELISA Kit

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EBV-VCA IgM ELISA Kit

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Genorise® Malignant Catarrhal Fever (MCF) PCR Test Kit-100

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One Step RT PCR Kit

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One-Step RT-PCR Kit

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OneScriptTwo-Step RT-PCR Kit

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OneScriptTwo-Step RT-PCR Kit

G282 100 reactions
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RT-PCR Control Template Kit

G928 100 rxns
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Wallemia sebi RT PCR kit

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Wallemia sebi RT PCR kit

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Wallemia sebi RT PCR kit

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Tenacibaculum maritimum RT PCR kit

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Tenacibaculum maritimum RT PCR kit

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Geotrichum candidum RT PCR kit

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Geotrichum candidum RT PCR kit

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Geotrichum candidum RT PCR kit

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Beggiatoa alba RT PCR kit

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Beggiatoa alba RT PCR kit

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Beggiatoa alba RT PCR kit

RTq-A350-50D 50T
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Flexibacter sp. RT PCR kit

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Flexibacter sp. RT PCR kit

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Flexibacter sp. RT PCR kit

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Thiothrix sp. RT PCR kit

RTq-A526-100D 100T
EUR 860.4

Thiothrix sp. RT PCR kit

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EUR 969.6

Thiothrix sp. RT PCR kit

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EUR 717.6

Thysanophora penicilioides RT PCR kit

RTq-A527-100D 100T
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Thysanophora penicilioides RT PCR kit

RTq-A527-150D 150T
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Thysanophora penicilioides RT PCR kit

RTq-A527-50D 50T
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Streptococcus dysgalactiae RT PCR kit

RTq-A529-100D 100T
EUR 860.4

Streptococcus dysgalactiae RT PCR kit

RTq-A529-150D 150T
EUR 969.6

Streptococcus dysgalactiae RT PCR kit

RTq-A529-50D 50T
EUR 717.6

Aspergillus niger RT PCR kit

RTq-A530-100D 100T
EUR 860.4

Aspergillus niger RT PCR kit

RTq-A530-150D 150T
EUR 969.6

Therefore, this review is a compilation of the key to all the relevant information to the genus Ephedra, especially the American species, species distribution, ecological interactions, they, ethnobotany that, phytochemical and pharmacological activity and toxicity, in order to promote a clear direction for future research.