The traditional use of southern African medicinal plants for the treatment of bacterial respiratory diseases: A review of the ethnobotany and scientific evaluations

ethnopharmacological relevance: Several plant species traditionally used in South Africa to treat bacterial respiratory disease. This review summarizes and highlights the use of this plant species that are not verified for this activity.


The purpose of the study: This manuscript reviews the use of traditional southern African plant species to treat bacterial respiratory disease with the aim of highlighting the gaps in the literature and the focus of future studies.


Materials and Methods: An extensive review of the book ethnobotany, reviews and the primary scientific studies conducted to identify the southern African plant used in traditional medicine of South Africa to treat bacterial respiratory disease. We are also looking for a southern African plant inhibitory activity against bacterial respiratory pathogens have conmfirmed, highlight gaps in the literature and future focus.


Results: One hundred and eighty seven southern African plant species are recorded as a traditional treatment for bacterial respiratory infections. scientific evaluation of 178 plant species recorded, although only 42 of them have been selected for screening on the basis of their ethnobotanical use. Therefore, the potential of the 146 species used teraditionally to treat bacterial respiratory disease has not been verified.


Conclusion: The properties of inhibition of the southern African medicinal plants against bacterial respiratory pathogens is relatively under-explored and the antibacterial activity of plant species that most remains to be verified.

 The traditional use of southern African medicinal plants for the treatment of bacterial respiratory diseases: A review of the ethnobotany and scientific evaluations
The traditional use of southern African medicinal plants for the treatment of bacterial respiratory diseases: A review of the ethnobotany and scientific evaluations

A Review of the genus Ephedra: Distribution, Ecology, Ethnobotany, Phytochemistry and Pharmacology Property

Ephedra is one of the largest genera of the family Ephedraceae, which are distributed in arid and semi-arid regions of the world. In traditional medicine from several countries some species of the genus are commonly used to treat asthma, cold, flu, chills, fever, headache, nasal congestion, and cough. Chemical constituents of species Ephedra has attracted research for decades because of its content of ephedrine-alkaloid and its pharmacological properties.

other chemical constituents such as phenolic and amino acid derivatives has also resulted in interesting and has given advocates the use of evidence-based ethnomedical from Ephedra species. In recent years, research has expanded to explore the diversity of endophytic fungi associated with Ephedra species, as well as, the chemical constituents are derived from these mushrooms and their pharmacological bioprospecting.

Two additional aspects that describe the chemical diversity of the genus Ephedra is chemotaxonomic approach and the use of ephedrine-alkaloid as a building block in organic synthesis. American Ephedra species, especially those in Mexico, are considered to lack the type of ephedrine alkaloids. In this sense, phytochemical studies Mexican species Ephedra is a promising area of ​​research to strengthen them ephedrine alkaloid-type content and, in turn, discover new chemical compounds with potential biological activity.

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hsa-mir-100 RT-PCR Primer Set

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hsa-mir-100-3p RT-PCR Primer Set

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Ruminococcus RT PCR kit

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Ruminococcus RT PCR kit

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Therefore, this review is a compilation of the key to all the relevant information to the genus Ephedra, especially the American species, species distribution, ecological interactions, they, ethnobotany that, phytochemical and pharmacological activity and toxicity, in order to promote a clear direction for future research.